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Sodobni vojaški izzivi - leto 2019

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.0.
Liliana Brožič
UVODNIK: ORGANIZACIJSKA KULTURA

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.00.
Liliana Brožič
EDITORIAL: ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.1.
Maja Garb
KDO JE PRAVI VOJAK? ANALIZA SODOBNE VOJAŠKE IDENTITETE
WHO IS A PROPER SOLDIER? ANALYSIS OF A MODERN MILITARY IDENTITY

Teorija socialne identitete je ena osrednjih teorij socialne psihologije ter sociologije. Za pojasnjevanje procesov povezovanja posameznika s skupinami pa uporabljamo še druge teorije, kot sta teorija samokategorizacije in teorija socialnih vlog. Nekoč so bile identitete pripisane, danes jih ljudje odkrivajo sami, imajo jih več, zlasti jim je dana možnost samokategorizacije. Podobne spremembe opažamo tudi med pripadniki vojske in v vojaški organizaciji. Tradicionalno vojaško identiteto označuje ustaljenost odnosov, ki je vidna predvsem v hierarhični strukturi ter uveljavljeni disciplini, ter podrejanje osebne identitete kolektivni. Sodobna vojaška identiteta ni enotna in nedvoumna, pripadniki vojske pa poleg vojaške identitete in delovanja v vojaških vlogah razvijajo tudi druge socialne identitete oziroma vstopajo v vrsto različnih socialnih vlog.
Ključne besede: Socialna identiteta, socialna vloga, vojaška identiteta, tradicionalna vojaška identiteta, sodobna vojaška identiteta.

Social identity theory forms one of the key theories in social psychology and sociology. However, some other theories, such as self-categorization theory and social role theory are also used to explain the relations among individuals and groups. In the past the identities were assigned, whereas nowadays people explore their identities themselves; they have multiple identities and they can self-categorize themselves. Modern militaries and their members experience similar changes. Traditional military identity is characterized by stabilized relations, manifesting mainly through hierarchical structure and established discipline, and subordination of personal identity to the collective one. Modern military identity is not uniform and unambiguous. Military members, in addition to their military identity and military roles, develop other social identities and enact a variety of different social roles.
Keywords: Social identity, social role, military identity, traditional military identity, modern military identity.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.2.
Nataša Troha, Nuša Gorenak
ZNAČILNOSTI DELA SKOZI OČI GENERACIJE MLADIH: RAZISKAVA MLADI IN MOTIVI ZA VOJAŠKI POKLIC
JOB CHARACTERISTICS THROUGH THE EYES OF THE YOUNG GENERATION: SURVEY RESEARCH YOUTH AND THEIR MOTIVES FOR MILITARY PROFESSION

V Slovenski vojski smo izvedli raziskavo Mladi in motivi za vojaški poklic, s katero smo ugotavljali, katere so značilnosti generacije mladih. Z vprašalnikom, ki je bil oblikovan za namen raziskave, smo z različnimi vprašanji preverjali zanimanje mladih za delo v vojski in za sodelovanje s Slovensko vojsko. Ugotavljali smo vrednote, hobije in interese mladih ter njihovo zaznavanje različnih značilnosti dela.
V tem članku se osredotočamo na to, kako slovenski srednješolci zaznavajo značilnosti dela. Zanimalo nas je, kaj je tisto, kar jim je pri delu bolj in kaj manj privlačno.
Rezultati kažejo, da so glavni motivi za delo pri mladih povezani s plačilom, dobrimi odnosi, možnostmi napredovanja, varnostjo zaposlitve in urejenostjo. Pomembno vlogo ima tudi družina. Želijo poznati smisel, zakaj nekaj počnejo in pri delu pridobivati veščine, ki jim pridejo prav v življenju. Značilnosti vojaškega poklica niso med najbolj zanimivi motivi. Analize razlik med spoloma, vrsto srednješolskega programa in zanimanja za delo vojaka pokažejo, da so značilnosti vojaškega poklica zanimivejše moškim, dijakom poklicnih programov, predvsem pa tistim, ki so izrazili željo po delu v vojski.
Ključne besede: Vojaški poklic, značilnosti dela, motivi mladih.

In the Slovenian Armed Forces, we conducted a survey research entitled Youth and their motives for the military profession to determine the characteristics of a generation of young people. The questionnaire, which was designed for the purpose of the research, used various questions to examine the interest of young people to work in the military and in the Slovenian Armed Forces. We aimed to identify the values, hobbies and interests of young people and how they perceive different job characteristics.
In this article, we focus on how Slovenian secondary-school students perceive job characteristics. We were interested in what is more attractive and what is less attractive to them at work.
The results show that the youth’s main motives for work are related to pay, good relationships, promotion opportunities, job security and orderliness. Family also plays an important role. They want to know the meaning of their effort and to acquire the skills that can come useful in their lives. The characteristics of the military profession are not among the most interesting motives. An analysis by gender, type of the high school programme, and the interest in the military work show that the characteristics of the military profession are more attractive to male students, students of vocational programmes, and especially to those who have expressed a desire to work in the military.
Keywords: Military profession, job characteristics, motives of the young generation.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.3.
Nina Rosulnik, Janja Vuga Beršnak
KAJ PRITEGNE MLADOSTNIKE 21. STOLETJA, DA SE ZAPOSLIJO V VOJAŠKI ORGANIZACIJI
WHAT MOTIVATES THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE 21ST CENTURY TO JOIN THE MILITARY

Mlade pri iskanju zaposlitve vodijo različni motivacijski dejavniki. Na njihova pričakovanja glede dela in zaposlitve vplivajo vrednote, osebnostne lastnosti, družbeni kontekst, ugled poklica in veliko drugih dejavnikov. Ob tem želijo delodajalci pridobiti čim bolj motivirane in usposobljene kadre, ki jim je treba omogočiti možnosti za zadovoljevanje nekaterih pričakovanj in potreb, saj le zadovoljni zaposleni ter njihove družine predstavljajo temelj za razvoj in napredek. Z raziskavo v skupini mladostnikov med 18. in 30. letom smo ugotavljali, kaj jih motivira pri izbiri zaposlitve, pri čemer smo v analizi izpostavili pripravljenost zaposliti se v Slovenski vojski. Ugotovili smo, da je mogoče mlade razvrstiti v različne skupine glede na njihova pričakovanja glede zaposlitve in jih skladno s tem nagovarjati za vstop v Slovensko vojsko. Prav tako je pomembno mladim omogočiti pridobivanje veščin, ki so uporabne tudi v civilnih poklicih. Ugotavljamo, da je mogoče sočasno zadovoljiti potrebe tistih, ki se bodo razvili v profesionalne in vodilne pripadnike Slovenske vojske, kot tudi tistih, ki bodo izstopili po nekaj letih dela ter poklicno pot nadaljevali v civilnem okolju.
Ključne besede: Pričakovanja glede dela, zaposlitev, mladi, vrednote, Slovenska vojska.

Young job seekers are led by different motivational factors. Their work expectations and future employment are influenced by values, personality traits, social context, profession’s reputation and many other factors. At the same time, employers want to get the best possible personnel that will demonstrate motivation and efficiency. Within a company, personnel should be offered the opportunity to meet certain expectations and needs, since only satisfied employees and their families can form a firm foundation for future corporate development and progress. A survey of young people between the ages of 18 and 30 revealed what motivates them when choosing a job, whereby in the analysis we highlight their willingness to join the Slovenian Armed Forces. The analysis reveals that young people can be classified into different groups based on their expectations regarding the future work. It is important to enable young people to acquire skills that are also useful in civilian occupations. We believe that it is possible to meet the needs of those who will develop into the professional backbone of the SAF, as well as those who will leave after several years of work and pursue a career in the civilian sphere.
Keywords: Work expectations, employment, youth, values, Slovenian Armed Forces.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.4.
Marjan Horvat
ŠTUDIJA KONCEPTA VOJAŠKEGA VODITELJSTVA V SLOVENSKI VOJSKI
STUDY OF THE MILITARY LEADERSHIP CONCEPT IN THE SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

Osrednja tema prispevka je Koncept vojaškega voditeljstva v Slovenski vojski, ki trenutno predstavlja najvišji vsebinski in usmerjevalni normativni akt na področju vojaškega vodenja v Slovenski vojski (v nadaljevanju SV). Zaradi izjemne pomembnosti tega področja pri delu z ljudmi in zaradi cilja vplivanja na spremembo koncepta smo v prispevku analizirali in primerjali koncepte vojaškega vodenja v izbranih drugih vojskah in iskali podobnosti ter razhajanja predvsem v dveh segmentih – vsebinskem in normativnem. Prikazali smo na eni strani vsebinsko zastarelost in neustrezno normativno uvrščenost Koncepta vojaškega voditeljstva v Slovenski vojski in na drugi strani nujnost vsebinske posodobitve s konkretnimi predlogi ter argumente za nastanek Doktrine vojaškega vodenja v SV.
Vodenje, oborožene sile, Koncept vojaškega voditeljstva v SV.

The main theme of the paper is the Concept of Military Leadership in the Slovenian Armed Forces, which currently represents the highest substantive and guiding normative act in the field of military leadership in the Slovenian Armed Forces (hereinafter referred to as the SAF). Due to the enormous importance of this field in working with people and the aim to influence the change of the concept, the paper analysed and compared the concepts of military leadership in other selected armed forces and looked for similarities and divergences, especially in two segments - substantive and normative. On the one hand, we have shown the substantive obsolescence and inadequate normative ranking of the Concept of Military Leadership in the Slovenian Armed Forces and, on the other hand, the necessity of substantive updating with concrete proposals and arguments for the development of the Doctrine of Military Leadership in the SAF.
Keywords: Leadership, armed forces, Concept of Military Leadership in the SAF.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.5.
Franc Kalič
DEFORMIRANA ORGANIZACIJSKA KULTURA IN NEŽELENI POJAVI VODITELJSTVA V VOJSKI
DEFORMED ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND UNDESIRABLE PHENOMENA OF LEADERSHIP IN THE ARMED FORCES

Neželeni pojavi voditeljstva so nesprejemljiva ravnanja, ki so v različnih oblikah navzoča v vseh organizacijah in na vseh ravneh. Skupno takim ravnanjem je, da destruktivno vplivajo na celotno organizacijo in posameznike v njej. Pojavljajo in razvijajo se zato, ker v organizacijah niso razvite in vzpostavljene prakse za njihovo zaznavanje in preprečevanje, in tako se posredno dopuščajo. Vojaška organizacija je zaradi svojih konformističnih lastnosti nagnjena k prepričanju, da vzgaja, izobražuje in karierno razvija dobre voditelje, zato na tem področju težko razvija samokritičnost. V vojaških formalnih okvirih se težko priznava, da obstajajo in se razvijajo neželeni pojavi voditeljstva. Dejstvo je, da so v vojaški realnosti taki pojavi zaznani ter destruktivno vplivajo na usposabljanje, razvoj in delovanje vojske. Lahko bi celo zaznali organizacijsko hipokrizijo, ki se izraža v protislovju med želenim in resničnim, med teorijo o želenih voditeljih in zaznanih praksah slabega voditeljstva.
Ključne besede: Organizacijska kultura, vojaška organizacija, neželeno voditeljstvo, toksično vodenje.

The undesirable phenomena of leadership are unacceptable practices in various forms, which occur in all organizations and at all levels. The common feature of such practices is that they have a destructive effect on the entire organization and its individuals. They appear and evolve, because organizations have not developed and established practices to detect and prevent them and thus indirectly tolerate them. Due to its conformist characteristics, a military organisation is inclined to believe that it educates, trains and develops good leaders. Consequently, it finds it difficult to develop self-criticism in this area. In formal military contexts, the existence of undesirable phenomena of leadership are hard to acknowledge. The fact is, however, that in military reality such phenomena are identified and have a destructive effect on military training, development and operation. It could even be possible to identify organizational hypocrisy, which is manifested through the contradiction between the desired and the actual practices, between the theory of desirable leaders and the identified practices of bad leadership.
Keywords: Organizational culture, military organization, undesirable leadership, toxic leadership.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.6.
Miha Šlebir
SODOBNA OPERATIKA: MED RELIKTOM IN FENIKSOM VOJAŠKIH VED
MODERN OPERATIONAL ART: BETWEEN RELICT AND PHOENIX OF MILITARY SCIENCE

Čeprav je bila operatika teoretsko utemeljena v Sovjetski zvezi že v 20. letih 20. stoletja, je bila globalno prepoznana šele v zadnjem desetletju hladne vojne. Spremembe varnostnega okolja po razpadu varšavskega pakta so vodile k ohlapnejšemu dojemanju sodobne operatike, ki ne proučuje in usmerja le delovanja v večjih vojaških, temveč tudi v integriranih vojaško-civilnih operacijah. Operatiko še vedno pesti nedodelanost teorije in nekaterih temeljnih konceptov – eden takih je koncept točke osredotočenja –, kar omejuje njeno znanstveno in praktično uporabnost. Čeprav posamezni avtorji operatiko označujejo za anahronistično, je mogoče, da gre pravzaprav le za transformacijo vede v smeri večje družboslovne interdisciplinarnosti.
Ključne besede: Operatika, operativna veščina, vojaške operacije, ravni vojskovanja.

Even though operational art was theoretically grounded in the 1920s in the Soviet Union, it had not been globally recognized until the last decade of the Cold War. Changes in security environment after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact loosened the perception of operational art, which is now being used for analysis and practical guidance of both major military and integrated military-civilian operations. However, operational art’s theory and some of its basic concepts – such as centre of gravity – are still underdeveloped, limiting scientific and practical utility of the discipline. Although some authors view operational art as anachronistic, it may as well be transforming merely itself into a predominantly interdisciplinary social science discipline.
Keywords: Operational warfare, operational art, military operations, levels of warfare.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.4.7.
Blaž Tomšič
HIBRIDNO DELOVANJE KOT METODA URESNIČEVANJA NACIONALNE STRATEGIJE – PRIMER KRIMA
HYBRID WARFARE AS A METOD OF IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL STRATEGY – THE CASE OF CRIMEA

Ruska operacija aneksije Krima leta 2014, ki je bila opravljena z neverjetno hitrostjo in uigranostjo različnih mehkih in trdih instrumentov nacionalne moči ob hkratni uporabi moči protestov lokalnega proruskega prebivalstva, je nedvomno eden boljših primerov hibridnega vojskovanja. Brutalnost in hkratna kirurška natančnost izvedbe operacije sta dajali občutek, kot da je prav vsak izmed instrumentov nacionalne moči odigral svojo vnaprej točno določeno vlogo, ki pa je, zanimivo, imela podlago v krovnih dokumentih nacionalne varnosti in obrambe, kot sta strategija nacionalne varnosti ter vojaška doktrina. To je predvsem svojevrsten dokaz prilagoditve ruskega vojaškega in političnega strateškega okvira delovanja na nove globalne izzive sodobnega sveta. Prej toga in pregovorno sovjetskemu načinu uporabe primarno brutalne vojaške moči zavezana Rusija se je v tem primeru pokazala za dinamično ter izjemno prilagodljivo silo, sposobno uporabiti različne instrumente nacionalne moči ob ustrezni podpori precej spremenjenega, a izjemno učinkovitega, vojaškega instrumenta moči. S tem je šokirala zahodno strokovno in politično javnost ter odprla velike razprave v strokovnih krogih, ki ji sposobnosti tovrstnega delovanja prej niso pripisovali. Hibridno delovanje je postalo stalnica razprav v vojaških in političnih krogih Zahoda, ki se osredotočajo predvsem na iskanje rešitev za učinkovito zoperstavljanje novi grožnji, ki jo je s Krimom predstavila ruska stran.
Ključne besede: Hibridno delovanje, nacionalna strategija, vojaška doktrina, Krim.

Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014, carried out with an amazing speed and coordination of various soft and hard instruments of national power, while simultaneously using the power of protests by the local pro-Russian population, is undoubtedly one of the better examples of hybrid warfare. The brutality and simultaneous surgical precision of the operation have made it feel as if each of the instruments of national power had played its precisely defined role, which had its basis in the national security and defence documents, such as the national security strategy and military doctrine. This is a proof of adapting the Russia’s military and political strategic framework to the new global challenges of the modern world. The formerly rigid Russia using the primarily brutal military power typical of the Soviet regime, has in this case proved to be a dynamic and highly flexible force, capable of using various instruments of national power, coupled with an appropriate support of a considerably altered, but extremely effective military power instrument. In doing so, it actually shocked the Western professional and political public and opened a wide debate in professional circles, which had previously not attributed the ability of such activities to Russia. Hybrid warfare has become a constant feature of discussions in the military and political circles of the West, focusing primarily on finding solutions to effectively counter the new threat presented in Crimea by the Russian side.
Keywords: Hybrid warfare, national strategy, military doctrine, Crimea.