Republika Slovenija
  Ministrstvo za obrambo
  Generalštab Slovenske vojske
  Vojkova cesta 55
  1000 Ljubljana
  T: +386 (0)1 471 22 11
  F: +386 (0)1 471 16 50
  E: glavna.pisarna.gssv(at)mors.si

Sodobni vojaški izzivi - leto 2018

Branimir Furlan
ZMANJŠEVANJE TVEGANJ ZA NASTANEK CIVILNO-VOJAŠKIH KONFLIKTOV
REDUCTION OF RISKS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL-MILITARY CONFLICTS

Povzetek: Za sodobne demokratične civilno-vojaške odnose je značilna vključenost vojaških voditeljev v procese kreiranja politik o vprašanjih nacionalne varnosti in uporabe oboroženih sil. Pri oblikovanju obrambnih ali varnostnih interesov, ciljev in strategij se prepletata civilna in vojaška domena. Zaradi različnih pogledov na nacionalno varnost in obrambo ter z njima povezano vlogo vojske prihaja v civilno-vojaških odnosih do trenj, ki večinoma pomagajo pri sprejemanju dobrih odločitev in oblikovanju kakovostnih varnostnih ali obrambnih strategij. Trenja lahko prerastejo v civilno-vojaški konflikt in vodijo v destabilizacijo civilno-vojaških odnosov. Avtor na podlagi teoretičnih spoznanj o civilno-vojaških odnosih ter študije primera prakse tujih civilno-vojaških odnosov opisuje okoliščine, ki vodijo v civilno-vojaški konflikt. Pri tem predstavi nekatere negativne učinke uveljavljanja mehanizmov civilnega nadzora in pozitivne ter negativne zglede odzivanja ob nesoglasju med udeležencema civilno-vojaškega dialoga. Za zmanjšanje tveganja za nastanek konfliktov ter s tem ohranjanje stabilnih civilno-vojaških odnosov izpostavlja med drugim potrebo po zavedanju vojaških voditeljev o prevladujoči vlogi civilnih voditeljev v razpravah, v katerih prihaja do nesoglasij, ter potrebo po preudarni uporabi mehanizmov civilnega nadzora izvajalcev nadzora.

Abstract: Modern and democratic civil-military relations are characterized by equal involvement of senior military leadership into processes for the creation of politics associated with questions on national security and use of armed forces. Civilian and military domains overlap in the process of defining defence and security interests, goals and strategies. Due to different perspectives on national security and defence, and the related role of the armed forces, civil-military tensions are a logical consequence of this process. In most cases, tensions support effective decision making and creation of good security or defence strategies. At certain point, however, tensions may lead to civil-military conflicts and destabilization of civil-military relations. Using different theories of civil-military relations and foreign case studies, the author describes circumstances that lead to civil-military conflicts. He describes certain negative effects of implementing civilian control mechanisms, as well as good and bad examples of how both actors in civil-military debate respond to tensions. In order to reduce risks for the development of conflicts and consequently assure the stabilization of civil-military relations, the author highlights, among others, a need for the military leadership to be aware of the supremacy of civilian authorities in debates where consent does not exist, and a need for prudent use of control mechanisms by the civilian authorities.

Pavel Vuk
DEFINIRANJE KONCEPTOV NA PRIMERU VOJAŠKE STRATEGIJE
DEFINING CONCEPTS IN THE CASE OF A MILITARY STRATEGY

Povzetek: Koncepti ali pojmi kot miselni konstrukti realnega sveta so temeljni sestavni elementi teorij, v katerih so prisotni skozi svoje definicije. Bolj enoznačno in jasno so definirani, bolj nedvoumne so komunikacija med znanstveniki in raziskovalci, opredelitev oziroma zamejitev področja raziskovanja ter konceptualizacija oziroma razčlenitev teoretskega pojma ali koncepta. V prispevku smo tako definiranje koncepta izvedli na primeru vojaške strategije. Metodološki okvir za definiranje koncepta vojaške strategije temelji na Sartorijevi metodi analiziranja konceptov in Goertzevi metodi dodajanja oziroma odvzemanja pridevnikov konceptu. Z analitičnim pristopom razvitja definicije vojaške strategije smo spoznali, da lahko tudi v vojaškem slovenskem pomenoslovju bistveno pripomoremo k omejitvi tako količinske kot tudi kakovostne raznolikosti vojaških terminov, ki se pogostokrat brez jasne konotacije pojavljajo in uporabljajo v strokovnih in znanstvenih delih. Empirični koncept je lahko tudi dobro izhodišče za nadaljnje razmišljanje o smotrnosti pristopa k morebitnemu oblikovanju vojaške strategije v slovenskem prostoru.

Abstract: Concepts as mental constructs of the real world are the fundamental components of theories where they are present through their definitions. The more the concepts are unambiguously and clearly defined, the more explicit are the communication between scientists and researchers, the definition or limitation of the object of research, and the conceptualization or analysis of the theoretical concept. In the article, we used the concept definition in the case of a military strategy. The methodological framework for defining the concept of a military strategy is based on Sartori’s method of concept analysis and Goertz’s method of attaching or removing adjectives to and from the concept. By using the analytical approach to the development of the definition of a military strategy, we found that in the Slovenian military semantics, too, we can significantly contribute to the limitation of both quantitative and qualitative diversity of military terms, which often appear and are used in professional and scientific works without clear connotations. The empirical concept can also serve as a good starting point for further reflection on the rationality of the approach to the possible formation of a military strategy in the Republic of Slovenia.

Anja Kolak, Franc Mali
(VOJAŠKI) ROBOTSKI SISTEMI: MERILA ZA RAZVRŠČANJE V SKUPINE IN DRUŽBENO-ETIČNE DILEME
(MILITARY) ROBOT SYSTEMS: CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION AND SOCIAL AND ETHICAL DILEMAS

Povzetek: Tehnologije prihodnosti, ki nastajajo na presečišču štirih znanstvenotehnoloških domen (nano-, info-, bio- in kogno), prežemajo vse družbene sloje – oborožene sile pri tem niso izjema. Pregled pomembnejših obrambnih konceptov, ki v luči novih strategij vojskovanja predvidevajo uporabo novih vojaških tehnologij, pokaže, da v sodobnih oborožitvenih sistemih robotika vseskozi igra pomembno vlogo. Namen prispevka je identificirati in opredeliti vojaške robotske sisteme, prikazati razvrščanje teh sistemov glede na področje uporabe in stopnjo avtonomije ter odgovoriti na nekatera družbeno-etična vprašanja, ki jih prinašajo (pol)avtonomni robotski sistemi. Ugotavljamo, da splošno sprejeta definicija, ki bi pojasnjevala, kaj robotski sistem je, ne obstaja, opredelitve vojaškega robota pa so pogosto nejasne. Na podlagi teh izsledkov in po pregledu več definicij predlagamo izhodišča za oblikovanje nove definicije (vojaškega) robotskega sistema. Za konec izpostavljamo še nekatere dileme, ki predstavljajo del širšega razmisleka o oceni tveganj, ki jih prinašata razvoj in uporaba avtonomnih robotskih sistemov, sprašujemo se, ali slediti svariteljskim ali proakcijskim načelom.

Abstract: Future technologies, which are emerging at the intersections of four scientific and technological domains (Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno), are now permeating all spheres of society – the armed forces are no exception. Regarding an overview of key defence concepts, which in the light of the modern strategies foresee the use of new military technologies shows that robotics has, throughout, played an important role in the context of contemporary weapons systems. The purpose of this article is to identify and define military robot systems, to present a comprehensive taxonomy of a broad range of robots and autonomy levels, and to discuss the social and ethical issues that arise from the use of (semi) autonomous robot systems. According to the literature review, there is no generally accepted definition of a robot, and definitions of a military robot are often unclear. Based on these findings and after reviewing the definitions by several authors, we propose a few bases to develop a new definition of a (military) robot system. Finally, we highlight some dilemmas as part of a broader discussion of a risk assessment brought about by the development and use of autonomous robot systems. We debate whether to follow the precautionary or the proactionary principle.

Marjan Sirk
STRATEŠKO KOMUNICIRANJE KOT ELEMENT MOČI DRŽAVE
STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS AS AN ELEMENT OF STATE POWER

Povzetek: Zgodovina kaže, da so bili ljudje vedno, še pred izbruhom vojne, deležni vplivov v obliki pojasnil, razlag, informacijskih kampanj in podobnega, kar pa je bilo zelo odvisno od tega, kako so razmere videli ali jih želeli prikazati pomembni akterji, predvsem aktualna oblast. Vodstvo države torej komunicira tako z državljani svoje države kot z državami oziroma oblastjo in državljani drugih držav ter naddržavnimi in nedržavnimi subjekti. Namen tega komuniciranja je doseči ali podpirati dosego določenega strateškega cilja, h kateremu so usmerjeni vse dejavnosti in elementi moči države, tudi njenih oboroženih sil. Komunikacijska strategija in njeno ustrezno izvajanje lahko odločilno prispevata k uresničevanju nacionalnih ciljev, država pa lahko z učinkovitim strateškim komuniciranjem deluje tudi v podporo njenim oboroženim silam in odločilno prispeva k varnosti države. Zato je strateško komuniciranje element in orodje moči države, ki ga je treba ustrezno uporabiti.

Abstract: History has shown that even before the outbreak of a war, people were influenced by different clarifications, explanations, information campaigns and the like. These instruments, however, were strongly conditioned by how the situation was perceived or wanted to be shown by important actors, especially the authorities in power. State management therefore uses this means to communicate with the citizens of their country as well as with the countries or authorities and citizens of other countries as well as with transnational and non-state entities. The purpose of this communication is to achieve or support the achievement of a specific strategic goal, which all activities and elements of state power, including its armed forces, aim for. The communication strategy and its proper implementation can make a decisive contribution to the achievement of national goals. The state, on the other hand, can use effective strategic communications to support its armed forces and decisively contribute to the country’s security. Strategic communications are therefore an element and tool of state power, which, however, needs to be used in a proper manner. Strategic communications are also carried out by alliances, as well as transnational and non-state actors. NATO has developed strategic communications concept and policy, which accurately defines this demanding and broad subject area. Nevertheless, in many countries, including members of the Alliance, the concept of strategic communications is many a time associated (only) with public affairs.

David Stonič
PREDSTAVITEV MODELA ZA PREPOZNAVANJE HIBRIDNIH GROŽENJ
INTRODUCING A HYBRID-THREAT IDENTIFICATION MODEL

Povzetek: V spremenjenem varnostnem okolju moramo razviti ustrezne koncepte in orodja za pravočasno prepoznavanje in opredelitev hibridnih groženj, da bi se lahko uspešno odzvali.
Oblikovali smo model, ki grožnje poveže z akterjem. Ovrednoteni obveščevalni podatki so vstopne informacije v izdelan model za ocenjevanje hibridne ogroženosti nacionalne varnosti. Izhodna informacija je identificirana hibridna grožnja.
Ob izpolnitvi pogoja hibridne ogroženosti lahko nacionalnovarnostni sistem začne izvajati ukrepe, ki bi zmanjšali zmožnosti delovanja hibridnega akterja. Zavedanje o obstoju hibridnih groženj in njihovo identificiranje bo spodbudilo odločevalce v nacionalnovarnostnem sistemu, da bodo zagotovili ustrezno hibridno odpornost države, saj je primarna odgovornost za spoprijemanje s hibridnimi grožnjami predvsem odgovornost države. Nujen je celostni vladni pristop v povezavi z Evropsko unijo in Severnoatlantskim zavezništvom.

Abstract: In order to ensure a successful response in a changed security environment, we have to be able to develop appropriate concepts and tools for timely identification and definition of hybrid threats.
We have developed a model, which relates threats with actors. The evaluated intelligence then serves as input information for the national security hybrid threat evaluation model. The output information is an identified hybrid threat.
When a hybrid threat is identified, the national security system can take adequate measures to hinder the operational ability of hybrid actors. The awareness of hybrid threats and their identification will encourage decision makers in the national security system to ensure adequate hybrid resilience of the country, since countering hybrid threats is a state’s primary responsibility, which requires a comprehensive governmental approach in cooperation with the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance.