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Sodobni vojaški izzivi - leto 2018

Johan Österberg, Emma Jonsson, Anna Karin Berglund
PRIDOBIVANJE ČASTNIKOV – IZBOLJŠEVANJE PROCESA
OFFICER RECRUITMENT – IMPROVING THE PROCESS

Povzetek: Edini način, da na Švedskem postaneš častnik, je, da končaš triletni program šolanja častnikov. V postopku selekcije za program šolanja častnikov je velika razlika med številom kandidatov in številom posameznikov, ki se v resnici začnejo šolati. Ena izmed posledic tega je, da program šolanja častnikov ni bil v celoti zapolnjen že od leta 2008, zaradi česar v švedski vojski primanjkuje častnikov. Prednostna naloga je torej popolnitev švedske vojske z zadostnim številom usposobljenih častnikov, zato se mora od zdaj naprej število kandidatov za častnike povečevati. Leta 2014 se je začel projekt, katerega namen je preučiti pridobivanje kandidatov in selekcijo za program šolanja častnikov ter prepoznavati dejavnike uspešnosti in področja, na katerih so potrebne izboljšave. Dodatna ambicija tega projekta je tudi uvedba ukrepov, potrebnih za povečanje učinkovitosti pridobivanja kandidatov na podlagi rezultatov in razmerja kandidatov, ki se vključijo v program šolanja častnikov.
Projekt je privedel do izvajanja drugačne strategije pridobivanja kadra v letih 2016 in 2017. V začetku postopka selekcije so s prijavljenimi stopili v stik kandidati, ki so že vključeni v program šolanja častnikov, povabljeni pa so bili tudi na informativni sestanek na švedski obrambni univerzi. S tistimi, ki so bili izbrani za šolanje v programu, so nato stopili v stik njihovi prihodnji poveljniki vodov in jim dali koristne informacije. Rezultati kažejo, da se je število kandidatov, ki so se vključili v program šolanja častnikov, povečalo, osip v izbirnem postopku pa je bil manjši kot prej.
Ključne besede: Pridobivanje kadra, častniki, program šolanja častnikov, švedska vojska.

Abstract: The only way to become an officer in Sweden is to complete the three-year Officers’ Programme (OP). In the selection process for the OP, there is a large gap between the number of applicants and the number of individuals who start the programme. One consequence of this is that the OP has not been fully manned since 2008, thus leaving the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) with a shortage of officers. Manning the SAF with sufficient officers with the right qualifications is a priority, and henceforth the number of cadets must increase. Therefore, in 2014, a project was launched with the aim of examining recruitment to and selection for the OP, as well as identifying success factors and areas of improvement. An additional ambition was to introduce measures intended to increase recruiting efficiency based on the results, and the proportion of individuals who enter the OP.
The project led to the implementation of a different recruitment strategy in 2016 and 2017. Early in the selection process applicants were contacted by cadets already studying on the OP, and were invited to an information meeting at the Swedish Defence University. Those who were selected to start the OP were also contacted by their future platoon commanders, who provided useful information. The outcomes show that the numbers of cadets starting the OP increased, and the dropout rate during the selection process was lower than before.
Key words: Recruitment, Officers, Officers’ Programme, Swedish Armed Forces

Tiia-Triin Truusa, Kairi Kasearu, Liina-Mai Tooding
UČINKI OBVEZNEGA SLUŽENJA VOJAŠKEGA ROKA NA PRIDOBIVANJE POKLICNIH PRIPADNIKOV V ESTONIJI
THE EFFECTS OF CONSCRIPT SERVICE ON THE RECRUITMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SOLDIERS IN ESTONIA

Povzetek: Estonske obrambne sile so urejene po načelu rezervnih sil, zato je v Estoniji v veljavi obvezno služenje vojaškega roka. V tem članku preučujemo, kako sistem obveznega služenja vojaškega roka vpliva na proces pridobivanja kadra v estonskih obrambnih silah (EOS). S pomočjo podatkov iz ankete, izvedene med estonskimi naborniki, bomo preučili individualne in strukturne dejavnike, ki vplivajo na to, koliko so EOS zanimive kot delodajalec med naborniki. Testirali smo dve predpostavki, ki temeljita na teoriji. (1) Ob upoštevanju pristopa družbenega učenja predpostavljamo, da pozitivne in negativne izkušnje v času obveznega služenja vojaškega roka lahko vplivajo na namero posameznika, da se zaposli kot poklicni pripadnik. (2) Na podlagi predpostavke o izbiri predvidevamo, da bodo tisti, ki so imeli pred vpoklicem pozitivne izkušnje z vojaškim načinom življenja, sprejeli obvezno služenje vojaškega roka v bolj pozitivni luči in jim bodo obrambne sile kot delodajalec zato še bolj zanimive. Rezultati kažejo, da je predpostavka o izbiri bolj podprta. To pomeni, da se pozitiven odnos do obrambnih sil in namen, da se posameznik tam zaposli, ne oblikujeta med služenjem vojaškega roka, temveč na to bolj vplivajo izkušnje pred vpoklicem ter sodelovanje v prostovoljnih organizacijah, povezanih z vojsko ali nacionalno varnostjo. Lahko bi rekli, da se odnos, ki ga je nabornik razvil pred obveznim služenjem, s služenjem vojaškega roka še bolj utrdi.
Ključne besede: Obvezno služenje vojaškega roka, naborništvo, pridobivanje kadra, obrambne sile, Estonija.

Abstract: The Estonian Defence Forces have been structured according to the principle of reserve force, and therefore Estonia uses compulsory conscription. In this paper, we will explore how the compulsory military service system influences the recruitment process into the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF). More precisely, we will study the individual and structural factors that determine the perceived attractiveness of the EDF as an employer among conscripts by using data from the Estonian Conscript Survey. We are testing two theory-driven assumptions: (1) following the social learning approach, we assume that positive and negative experiences during the conscription period may have an influence on the intention to continue as a professional in the military; (2) based on the selection hypothesis, we assume that those who have had positive experiences with the military way of life before being drafted will perceive compulsory military service in a more positive light, and therefore the attractiveness of the Defence Forces as an employer may even increase. The results show that the selection hypothesis has stronger support. It means that positive attitudes and the intention to join the defence forces are not formed during the service, but rather pre-conscription experience and involvement in voluntary organizations related to the military or interior security have a bigger influence. The service could be seen as affirming the attitudes that the conscript had already developed prior to conscript service.
Key words: Conscription, recruitment, defence forces, Estonia

James Griffith
PROSTOVOLJNO POPOLNJEVANJE V ZDA: NOVE IN POGOSTO NEPREDVIDENE TEŽAVE S PRIDOBIVANJEM IN ZADRŽEVANJEM KADRA TER NJEGOVO PRIPRAVLJENOSTJO
THE UNITED STATES ALL-VOLUNTEER FORCE: EMERGING (AND OFTEN UNANTICIPATED) ISSUES OF RECRUITMENT, RETENTION, AND READINESS

Povzetek: Po drugi svetovni vojni so se oborožene sile ZDA popolnjevale z vpoklicem ali obveznim služenjem vojaškega roka za fante. Ta praksa se je končala leta 1973 z uvedbo prostovoljnega popolnjevanja (All-Volunteer Force – AVF). Uvedba AVF pa je prinesla več novih izzivov, vključno z ustreznim pridobivanjem in zadrževanjem vojaškega kadra. Sčasoma je bilo treba sprejeti več prosilcev, saj se je pridobivanje kadra zmanjšalo. Bilo je manj zainteresiranih in ustreznih prosilcev, od teh pa še manj tistih, ki so ustrezali standardom. Ob uvedbi sprememb v nacionalni obrambni politiki in zaradi sodelovanja ZDA v nedavnih bojnih operacijah večjega obsega je prišlo do pomanjkanja pripravljenosti na področju pridobivanja in zadrževanja kadra. Nezadovoljiva pripravljenost se je najbolj kazala v rezervni sestavi, na kar se v tem članku tudi osredotočamo. S pomočjo opisa teh dogodkov prikazujemo medsebojno povezanost med pridobivanjem in zadrževanjem kadra ter pripravljenostjo, pri čemer kažemo na potrebo po bolj preudarnem razmisleku o tem, kako se vsak izmed njih izvaja, še zlasti v okviru AVF. Teorija identitete ponuja načine za razumevanje in razvijanje takih vrst vojaškega kadra, ki je potreben za lažje pridobivanje, zadrževanje in pripravo kadra.
Ključne besede: Vpoklic, obvezno služenje vojaškega roka, prostovoljno popolnjevanje, All-Volunteer Force – AVF, pridobivanje kadra, zadrževanje kadra, pripravljenost.

Abstract: After World War II “the draft”, or compulsory military service of young men, staffed U.S. forces. This practice ended in 1973 with the introduction of the All-Volunteer Force (AVF). However, staffing the AVF introduced several new challenges, including the adequate recruitment and retention of military personnel. Over time, more applicants had to be taken, as recruitment fell short. There were fewer interested and eligible applicants, and of these, even fewer who met the standards. A lack of readiness relating to both recruitment and retention became apparent as changes occurred in the national defense policy and the U.S.’s participation in recent large-scale combat operations. Inadequacies in readiness were most evident among the reserve forces – the focus of this paper. Through the description of these events, the inter-relationships between recruitment, retention, and readiness are demonstrated, pointing to the need for more deliberate thought with regard to how each is implemented, especially in the context of the AVF. Identity theory offers ways to understand and to develop the kinds of military personnel needed to better recruit, retain, and ready personnel.
Key words: Draft, compulsory military service, All-Volunteer Force, recruitment, retention, readiness

Boštjan Močnik
LAHKO DOBIMO TO VOJNO? IZZIVI PRIDOBIVANJA IN ZADRŽEVANJA KADRA V SLOVENSKI VOJSKI 15 LET POZNEJE
CAN WE WIN THIS WAR? SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION CHALLENGES 15 YEARS LATER

Povzetek: V članku so predstavljeni izzivi in uspešnost pridobivanja in zadrževanja vojaških oseb v Slovenski vojski ter vloga ugodnosti in nadomestil v nekaterih članicah Nata. Prehod na poklicno sestavo Slovenske vojske in njen zakonodajni okvir ne podpirata zaključka njene profesionalizacije. Petnajst let po opustitvi naborniškega sistema se je Slovenska vojska znašla pred veliko dilemo glede svoje funkcionalnosti. Do tega je prišlo zaradi neuspešnosti pri pridobivanju in zadrževanju kadra. Zaradi nizke stopnje popolnjenosti enot v SV in posledično tudi njihove nizke stalnosti in stabilnosti vojaške enote vse težje dosegajo visoke standarde usposobljenosti in s tem tudi sposobnost izvajanja osnovnega poslanstva – sposobnosti za bojevanje. Slovenska vojska je kot organizacija izpostavljena velikemu demografskemu in ekonomskemu pritisku trga delovne sile in danes ni prepoznana kot zanimiv zaposlovalec za mlade. Ne le za svoj nadaljni razvoj, temveč celo za obstoj nujno potrebuje nov družbenopolitični konsenz v družbi.
Ključne besede: Slovenska vojska, oborožene sile, zagotavljanje virov, pridobivanje in zadrževanje kadra v vojski, beneficije in nadomestila.

Abstract: This article presents the challenges and the success of recruitment and retention of military personnel in the SAF. It also addresses the role of benefits and compensations in some NATO member states. The transition to a professional army in the SAF and its legal framework do not support the conclusion of its professionalization. Fifteen years after abolishing the conscription system, the SAF has come to a big dilemma regarding its functionality. This has occurred because the recruitment and retention of its members have not been successful. Due to a high level of vacancies in SAF units and consequently their low continuity and stability, military units have great difficulty achieving high capacity standards and consequently the competence of carrying out their main mission – combat ability. The SAF as an organization is exposed to important demographic and economic pressure of the labour market and is nowadays not perceived as an alluring employer for young people. It is, therefore, in urgent need of a new socio-political consensus within the society, not only to ensure its future development, but also its sheer existence.
Key words: Slovenian Armed Forces, armed forces, provision of resources, military recruitment and retention, benefits and compensations

Joanna E. Anderson, Irina Goldenberg, Jan-Michael Charles
REZERVNA SESTAVA: SAMOSTOJNA OBRAVNAVA IN PRIMERJAVA S TEŽAVAMI STALNE SESTAVE
RESERVE FORCE: UNIQUE CONSIDERATIONS AND A COMPARISON WITH REGULAR FORCE ISSUES

Povzetek: Rezervna sestava kanadskih oboroženih sil (CAF) je sestavljena iz več komponent. Največja komponenta je primarna rezervna sestava (P Res), katere namen je dopolnjevanje redne sestave (Reg F) pri delovanju doma in v tujini. Vloge pripadnikov stalne in primarne rezerve sestave so zato podobne, obstajajo pa tudi pomembni samostojni vidiki. Sodelovanje v primarni rezervni komponenti lahko prinese bistveno drugačne izkušnje in izzive, povezane z zadrževanjem kadra. V tem članku primerjamo podatke iz dveh nedavnih velikih raziskav: ankete kanadskih oboroženih sil o zadrževanju kadra v stalni sestavi (CAF Reg F Retention Survey) (n = 1.956) in ankete kanadskih oboroženih sil o zadrževanju kadra v rezervni sestavi (CAF Reserve Force Retention Survey) (n = 3.669). Rezultati so pokazali, da je tako pri pripadnikih stalne sestave kot pri pripadnikih rezervne sestave prisoten konflikt med njihovimi vojaškimi, civilnimi in zasebnimi vlogami, čeprav na različne načine. Iz rezultatov je prav tako mogoče sklepati, da so pogoste domneve, da naj bi pripadniki stalne sestave rezerviste dojemali kot manj predane od njih, neutemeljene. Presenetljivo je, da je bila čustvena in normativna predanost rezervistov višja od predanosti pripadnikov stalne sestave, razlog njihovega odhoda pa pogosto povezan z željo po večji in ne manjši vpetosti v vojsko. Priporočila avtorjev se osredotočajo predvsem na izboljšanje ravnovesja med poklicnim in zasebnim življenjem pripadnikov ter na enakost med komponentami.
Ključne besede: Kanadske oborožene sile, stalna sestava, primarna rezerva, rezervna sestava, zadrževanje kadra.

Abstract: The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Reserve Force comprises several subcomponents. The largest is the Primary Reserve (P Res), whose purpose is to supplement the Regular Force (Reg F) in operations at home and abroad. As such, there is similarity in the roles of Reg F and P Res members, but also important unique aspects. Membership of a primarily part-time force may result in significantly different experiences and retention-related challenges. This article compares data from two recent large-scale surveys: the CAF Reg F Retention Survey (n = 1,956) and the CAF Reserve Force Retention Survey (n = 3,669). The results indicated that both the Reg F members and the reservists experience conflict between their military, civilian, and personal roles, albeit in different ways. They also suggest that Reg F members’ oft-cited perceptions of reservists as being less dedicated than themselves are unfounded. Surprisingly, the reservists’ affective and normative commitment was higher than the Reg F members’, and their reasons for leaving often focused on a desire to be more, rather than less, involved with the military. Recommendations focus on improving work-life balance and equity between the components.
Key words: Canadian Armed Forces, Regular Force, Primary Reserve, Reserve Force, retention

Elad Neemani
POPOLNJENOST IZRAELSKIH OBRAMBNIH SIL V ZAČETNIH LETIH: OD SOCIALNE KOHEZIJE DO STRATEŠKE KRIZE NA PODROČJU PRIDOBIVANJA IN ZADRŽEVANJA KADRA
ISRAEL DEFENCE FORCES MANPOWER IN ITS EARLY YEARS: FROM SOCIAL COHESION TO A STRATEGIC RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION CRISIS

Povzetek: Članek obravnava razvoj krize zaposlovanja v izraelskih obrambnih silah med izraelsko vojno za neodvisnost in v zgodnjih letih države. Njegov namen je razširiti razumevanje organizacijskih in družbenih problemov izraelskih obrambnih sil, tako da jih opredeli kot razširjeno postkolonialno strateško krizo, ki je prizadela vse enote kopenske vojske. V nedavnih raziskavah se osredotočamo na tisti deli problema, ki zadeva predvsem teme, povezane s področjem delovanja. V članku želimo raziskave razširiti še z opisom glavnih značilnosti in meja krize. Z razumevanjem izraelskega primera se bo okrepilo naše poznavanje načina oblikovanja postkolonialnih vojsk in njihovih načinov spopadanja s svojo družbeno raznolikostjo.
Ključne besede: Civilno-vojaški odnosi, pridobivanje in zadrževanje kadra, Izrael, popolnjenost, kriza, postkolonialno obdobje.

Abstract: This article examines the evolution of the manpower crisis in the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) during the Israeli War of Independence and in the early years of the state. It aims to widen the understanding of the IDF’s organizational and social problems by describing them as a post-colonial, overriding strategic crisis that affected all army units. Recent research studies have focused on parts of the issue, concentrating mainly on themes related to the field of operations. This article wishes to add to those studies by describing the main characteristics and boundaries of the crisis. Understanding the Israeli case will contribute to our knowledge of the ways post-colonial armies are formed, and their ways of coping with their social diversity.
Key words: Civil-military, recruitment and retention, Israel, manpower, crisis, post-colonial