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Sodobni vojaški izzivi - leto 2018

Tomaž Kladnik
PRVA SVETOVNA VOJNA IN VOJAŠKA ORGANIZIRANOST NA SLOVENSKEM
THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND MILITARY ORGANISATION ON THE SLOVENIAN TERRITORY

Povzetek: Ta vojna je bila drugačna od vseh do takrat, v njej pa je sodelovalo 28 držav ali tri četrtine človeštva. Boji so potekali na morju, zemlji in ob koncu tudi v zraku, žrtev pa je bilo toliko kot v nobeni vojni, in sicer 20 milijonov. Trajala je štiri leta na fronti in v zaledju, uničila največje imperije ter vplivala na uspešno izvedeno boljševistično revolucijo v Rusiji. Drugačna je bila tudi zaradi nove vojaške tehnike. Nove vrste orožja, letalo, tank, strojnica in plin so spremenili do takrat znano strategijo ter taktiko delovanja vojaških enot. Avstro-Ogrska se je na vojno skupaj s svojima zaveznicama Nemčijo in Italijo pripravljala dvajset let, vendar vojna ni potekala po teh načrtih. Vojaki v »slovenskih« polkih so najprej krvaveli na frontah v Galiciji, leta 1915 pa se je fronta odprla na slovenskem nacionalnem ozemlju ob Soči in posegla tako v vojaško kot civilno življenje na Slovenskem. Ob koncu vojne so bile na slovenskem ozemlju, predvsem v Mariboru pod poveljstvom generala Maistra, vzpostavljene enote, ki so bile sicer formacijsko podobne tistim pred vojno, vendar popolnoma drugačne predvsem po nacionalni strukturi in liniji poveljevanja. Vzpostavljena je bila slovenska vojska, ki se je že takoj po tem začela tako kot druge državne ustanove Države SHS izgubljati v vojski in upravi nove države.
Ključne besede: Prva svetovna vojna, Avstro-Ogrska, vojaška organiziranost, posledice vojne, vsakodnevno življenje.

Abstract: This war was different from all other wars that had taken place until then. It included 28 countries or three quarters of the humanity. The battles took place at sea, on land and, in the end, even in the air. The number of victims was larger than in any other war before that and amounted to 20 million. It lasted four years on the front line and in the rear, destroyed the largest empires, and influenced the successful Bolshevik revolution in Russia. It was also different because of the new military technical means. New types of weapons, aircraft, tanks, machine guns and gas have changed the strategy and tactics of military units known to date. Together with its allies Germany and Italy, Austria-Hungary had been preparing for the war for twenty years, but the course of the war did not follow their plans. First, soldiers in "Slovenian" regiments bled on the front lines in Galicia, and, in 1915, the front line opened on the Slovenian national territory along the Isonzo River interfering both with military and civilian life on the Slovenian territory. At the end of the war, on the Slovenian territory, in particular in Maribor units were formed under the command of General Maister. They were formed in a similar way than the units before the war, but their composition differed completely, mainly in terms of the nationality structure and the chain of command. Slovenian armed forces were established; however, they began to vanish in the light of the armed forces and the administration of the new state immediately afterwards, just like other state institutions of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
Key words: First World War, Austria-Hungary, military organisation, aftermath of the war, daily life.

Dunja Dobaja, Damijan Guštin
SLOVENSKI SPOMIN NA SOŠKO FRONTO
SLOVENIAN MEMORY OF THE ISONZO FRONT

Povzetek: Slovenski vojak na soški fronti je imaginarna celota, ki jo sestavljajo zelo različni ljudje po narodnosti Slovenci z različnimi vojaškimi položaji, doživetji in stališči do vojne, države ter celo domovine. Take omejitve je v spoznavnem procesu o položaju in čustvovanju slovenskega vojaka nujno treba upoštevati, da ne posplošujemo posamičnih izkušenj in zaradi strukture virov ne zapadamo v motivacijske ter propagandne vzorce tedanje dobe. Kljub temu je mogoče sklepati, da je slovenski vojak prenašal in doživljal vse tegobe vojaškega življenja, značilne za bojevanje na razmeroma stabilnih frontnih črtah, v jarkih in kazematah, med pogostim topniškim obstreljevanjem ter bojevanjem iz bližine. Slovenskega vojaka je posebej opredeljeval njegov odnos do ožje domovine, ki jo je razumel kot Slovenijo ali Kranjsko, Koroško oziroma Štajersko. Ta okoliščina je pri večini slovenskih vojakov prispevala k bolj osebnemu odnosu do bojevanja na soški fronti, k lažjemu prenašanju težav življenja in bojevanja na prvi bojni črti ter k višji bojni morali.
Ključne besede: Soška fronta, vojaki, bojna morala, prva svetovna vojna.

Abstract: Slovenian soldiers on the Isonzo Front are an imaginary whole composed of very different people of Slovenian nationality with various military positions, experiences and viewpoints regarding the war, the state or even their homeland. In the cognitive process concerning the position and emotional expression of Slovenian soldiers, such restrictions should be taken into serious consideration not to overgeneralise individual experiences and fall into motivational and propaganda patterns of the era due to the structure of resources. Nevertheless, it is possible to conclude that Slovenian soldiers have dealt with and experienced in entirety the hardship of military life characteristic of the combat on relatively stable front lines, in trenches and pillboxes, during frequent gun shooting and close combat. Slovenian soldiers were especially defined by their attitude towards their close homeland, which comprised Slovenia or Carniola, Carinthia and Styria. With the majority of Slovenian soldiers, this circumstance contributed to a more personal attitude towards their enagagement in the Battles of the Isonzo. It also helped them soothe the hardship of life and front line combat and to develop a higher combat morale.
Key words: Isonzo Front, soldiers, combat morale, First World War.

Valerija Bernik
VODENJE IN POVELJEVANJE V 12. SOŠKI OFENZIVI
COMMAND AND CONTROL IN THE TWELFTH ISONZO OFFENSIVE

Povzetek: Vodilni na evropskih generalštabih so med prvo svetovno vojno uporabljali tradicionalni način vodenja in poveljevanja, ki je od podrejenih zahteval predvsem poslušnost ter natančno izpolnjevanje ukazov. Na bojišču se je kmalu pokazalo, da je bil tak sistem za vodenje vojsk neprimeren in vzrok za marsikatero zamujeno priložnost. Prvi so novosti v vodenju in poveljevanju uvedli Nemci ter jih v praksi uspešno preizkusili v 12. soški ofenzivi.
Ključne besede: 12. soška ofenziva, vojaško vodenje in poveljevanje, kabinetno poveljevanje, poveljevanje s poslanstvom – Auftragstaktik.

Abstract: In the period of the First World War, European general staff leaders used the traditional model of military command and control, which demanded from their subordinates obedience and precise fulfilment of commands. The situation in the battlefields soon showed that the system was inappropriate and resulted in many lost opportunities. The Germans were the first to use a new model of military command and control and they successfully applied it in the Twelfth Isonzo Offensive.
Key words: Twelfth Isonzo Offensive, military command and control, chateau generalship, mission command – Auftragstaktik.

Blaž Torkar, Miha Kuhar
WÜRTTEMBERŠKI GORSKI BATALJON IN 12. SOŠKA OFENZIVA
WÜRTTEMBERG MOUNTAIN BATTALION AND THE TWELFTH ISONZO OFFENSIVE

Povzetek: Württemberški gorski bataljon je bil nemška vojaška enota dežele Württemberg. Oblikovan je bil precej pozno, šele oktobra 1915. Enota, ki ji je poveljeval major Theodor Sprösser, je prevzela pomembno vlogo v 12. soški ofenzivi, saj je ves čas delovala v konici napada alpskega korpusa in pozneje 1. avstro-ogrskega korpusa Krauss. Pomembno vlogo znotraj bataljona je imel tudi nadporočnik Erwin Rommel, ki je skupaj z majorjem Sprösserjem prejel visoko odlikovanje pour le mérite za uspešne boje ob reki Soči v prvih dneh ofenzive in operacijo Longarone. Bataljon je ves čas prodora od Tolmina do reke Piave deloval decentralizirano na več samostojnih smereh, saj so njegovi častniki razumeli in obvladali načelo poveljevanja s poslanstvom (Auftragstaktik) ter obvladali veščine nove taktike prodora. Bataljon je bil decembra 1917 skupaj z drugimi enotami 14. armade premeščen z italijanske fronte na opravljanje nove bojne naloge.
Ključne besede: Prva svetovna vojna, soška fronta, 12. soška ofenziva, Württemberški gorski bataljon, Theodor Sprösser, Erwin Rommel.

Abstract: The Württemberg Mountain Battalion was a German military unit of the Kingdom of Württemberg. It was formed relatively late, only in October 1915. The unit, which was commanded by Major Theodor Sprösser assumed a very important role in the Twelfth Isonzo Offensive. It was continuously engaged in the peak of the attack by the Alpine Corps’ (Alpenkorps) and later 1st Austro-Hungarian corps Krauss. An important role within the battalion was also played by First Lieutenant Erwin Rommel, who was together with Major Sprösser awarded a decoration Pour le Mérite for his success in the battles near the Isonzo River in the first days of the offensive, and for the Longarone operation. Throughout the penetration from Tolmino to the Piava River, the battalion functioned in a decentralised manner on several independent routes, since the commanders understood and mastered the mission command (Auftragstaktik) and mastered the skills of the new penetration tactics. In December 1917, the battalion and other units of the 14th Army were redeployed from the Italian front to a new combat assignment.
Key words: First World War, Isonzo Front, Twelfth Isonzo Offensive, Württemberg Mountain Battalion, Theodor Sprösser, Erwin Rommel.

Anton Ribič
ANALIZA GEOGRAFSKIH DEJAVNIKOV BOJIŠČA 14. ARMADE V 12. SOŠKI OFENZIVI
ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS OF THE 14TH ARMY BATTLEFIELD IN THE TWELFTH ISONZO OFFENSIVE

Povzetek: Pri razčlenjevanju zgodovinskega primera vojaške izrabe prostora in uporabe taktičnih postopkov pri doseganju strateških ciljev ugotavljamo prepletenost dejavnikov in posameznih dogodkov v povezavi z rezultati izvedenih vojaških aktivnosti. S presojo zgodovinskih okoliščin vojaških ravnanj interpretiramo vzroke in posledice ter izpeljujemo načela delovanja vojaških enot; tako odkrivamo temeljne resnice in splošna pravila oboroženega boja. Vrednotenje učinkov geografskih dejavnikov na obvladovanje in rabo nekega geografskega območja z vojaškimi tehnologijami po uveljavljenih pravilih delovanja vojaških enot ima osrednjo vlogo pri proučevanju součinkovanja prostora in vojaške sile.
Izraba prostora 14. armade v 12. soški ofenzivi je bila zelo spretna glede na takrat še neuveljavljena načela bojevanja. Uporaba vojaške taktike infiltracije posebnih udarnih enot v globino obrambe je temeljila na izrabi učinkov prostora in vremena. Proti ustaljeni obliki izrabe prostora v frontalni taktiki bojevanja je bila uporabljena metoda napada tvegana, a ključna za preboj na Tolminskem mostišču.
V prispevku so opisani vojaškogeografski dejavniki zgornjega in srednjega soškega bojišča ter ocena učinkov terena in vremena na bojno delovanje 14. armade v 12. soški ofenzivi. V obravnavi zgodovinskega primera spoznamo geografske dejavnike, ki so določali in usmerjali aktivnosti enot v 12. soški ofenzivi.
Ključne besede: Geografski dejavniki, operativno okolje, študija primera, 12. soška ofenziva.

Abstract: When analysing the historical case of the military use of space and tactical procedures in the achievement of strategic goals, we identify the intertwinement of the features and individual events related to the results of the accomplished military activities. By analysing the historical circumstances surrounding military actions, we interpret the causes and consequences and derive the principles of operation of military units. In this way, we discover the fundamental truths and general rules of an armed conflict. The evaluation of the impact of geographical factors on the management and use of a geographical area with the military means of technology following the established military rules of engagement plays the central role in the investigation of mutual effects of space and military force.
The use of space by the 14th Army in the Twelfth Isonzo Offensive was very clever considering the fact that, at the time, the principles of warfare had not yet been in place. The use of military infiltration tactics of special strike units in defence in depth was based on the use of space and weather effects. Used against the well-established use of space in the front warfare tactics, the method of attack which was used was risky, but crucial for the breakthrough at the Tolmin bridgehead.
The article describes the military and geographical factors of the upper and central battlefields of the Isonzo as well as the assessment of terrain and weather impacts on combat operations of the 14th Army in the Twelfth Isonzo Offensive. The study of this historical case reveals the geographical factors, which determined and directed the activities of units in the Twelfth Isonzo Offensive.
Key words: Geographical factors, operational environment, case study, the Twelfth Isonzo Offensive.